14 Dec In the lower part of the esophagus where it opens into the stomach, there is a valve called the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). This sphincter opens when there is food in the esophagus that then is transferred to the stomach. If this sphincter does not open and the food cannot move into the stomach. What causes GERD? GERD is a result of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) – the muscle at the bot- tom of the esophagus – not closing properly. When it doesn 't close, food, liquids and stomach acid can move back up into the esophagus. The causes of GERD are uncertain. A hiatal hernia may be a contributing factor. A. 6 Sep It closes to prevent food and liquid from moving out of the stomach and back up the esophagus. Abnormalities with peristalsis and LES function may cause symptoms such as swallowing difficulty, heartburn, or chest pain. Information obtained from manometry may help doctors to identify the problem.
Swallowing les -Interstitial cells of Cajal mediate enteric inhibitory neurotransmission in the swallowing les esophageal and pyloric sphincters. Top of page Lower Gay foot squirting Sphincter Anatomic Considerations The smooth muscles of the esophagus are organized into two distinct layers, the circular and the longitudinal, and these layers continue into the LES. J Appl Physiol ; After-contraction is seen only in the swallowing les part of the LES ; in the lower part, LES pressure simply returns to the resting pressure level. The pharynx also widens and shortens, which is accompanied by an elevation of the upper esophageal sphincter UES by several centimeters.
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