Due acknowledgement, with full reference to the articles and authors is. requested. Reference: Conny Almekinders & Jaap Hardon (eds.), Bringing Farmers Back into Breeding. Experiences. with Participatory Plant Breeding and Challenges for Institutionalisation. Agromisa Special 5, Agromisa,. Wageningen. pp Oléagineux 25, – HARDON, J.J. (). The oil palm. In Handbook of Plant Introduction in Tropical Crops, pp. 75– Ed. by J. Leon. FAO Agricultural Studies No. FAO, Rome HARDON, J.J. (). Oil palm breeding— Introduction. In Oil Palm Research, pp. – Ed. by R.H.V. Corley, J.J. Hardon and B.J. The length of generation time, added to space required for trials, limit the flexibility in the development of breeding populations (Hartley, ; Hardon, ). Another drawback is the mating system. Although palms are considered preferentially cross-pollinating species (Burquez et al., ; Tomlinson, ; Akpan, ;.